Can You Describe Life Cycle Of Liverworts?


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saima jabeen answered
Life cycle:    Gametophyte:  The plant body is a gametophyte. It may be thalloid i.e., flat or ribbon like, usually dichotomously, branched. It is attached to soil by means of rhizoids e.g., Marchantia.Other species tend to row upright and are falsely leafy i.e., differentiated into a false stem, and leaves e.g., Porella.    Sex Organ:  The sex organ develop on the upper surface of the thallus near the tips of the branches sometimes, they develop on special branches on gametophyte, called the antheridiophores and the archegoniophores as in Marchantia.The female sex organ is called archegoniumand male sex organ is called anthredium. Both grow on same or different thallus.    Gametes:  In Marchantia the antheridia produce unicellular haploid male gametes called antherozoids.The antherozoids are flagellated and mobile. The archegonia produce eggs.    Fertilization:  The antherozoids swim through water and reach the archigonium.They produce zygote there after fertilization. Diploid oospores divide mitotically and form the multicellular embryo which develops to form the sporophytes.    Sporophyte and Spore:  The mature sporophytes consists of a foot ,seta and a large capsule as in Pellia and Marchantia.The capsule splits to release spore which are dispersed by the air current.

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