What Does It Mean To "Restage" Breast Cancer?

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5 Answers

Abi Ainscough Profile
Abi Ainscough answered
If a patient with breast cancer is restaged, this means that the staging diagnosis of their cancer is being reconsidered after treatment. It is rare that a patient's cancer is restaged as typically the staging that is established at diagnosis is accurate. It is critical that the initial staging of the cancer is accurate because it affects the treatment that the patient will undergo. The stage of a cancer refers to the description of how far and to what extent the cancer has spread. These stages are number I to IV, the latter is the highest progression. Staging is used to primarily determine the treatment of the cancer and can be the most important predictor of survival. The description will take into account the size of a tumor, whether it has affected any adjacent organs, how deeply it has penetrated, how many lymph nodes it has metastasized to and whether it has spread even further to distant organs.

Within the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system there are two categories; a clinical stage and a pathological stage. The clinical stage is based on all of the information that is available before the patient has undergone surgery. This will include any information that has been gathered using endoscopy, radiological examinations and physical examinations. In comparison, the pathological stage can give additional information that has been collected whilst carrying out an examination of the tumor through a microscope by a pathologist. Typically the latter of the two is considered to be the most accurate stage as it involves a direct examination of the tumor. The two stages are still used to complement each other to give the most detailed report possible. Pathological stages cannot be given for tumors that are not treated with surgically and in these circumstances only a clinical stage can be determined.
Anonymous Profile
Anonymous answered
To restage just means your doctor where trying to find out the progress of the breast cancer after a while, maybe after surgery, chemotherapy or any treatment you may have had.
Suhail Ajmal Profile
Suhail Ajmal answered
Staging is the process in which doctor determines the stage of the cancer in the body and the location of the cancer. If a cancer comes back after treatment then re-staging is used to determine extent of the disease. For more information, click here
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Cancer is when abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way. Some cancers may eventually spread into other tissues.


There are more than 200 different types of cancer.

1 in 2 people in the UK will get cancer in their lifetime.

Thanks to research many people are cured.


How does cancer start?


Cancer starts when gene changes make one cell or a few cells begin to grow and multiply too much. This may cause a growth called a tumour.


How does cancer grow?


A primary tumour is the name for where a cancer starts.

Cancer can sometimes spread to other parts of the body – this is called a secondary tumour or a metastasis.

Cancer and its treatments can affect body systems, such as the blood circulation, lymphatic and immune systems, and the hormone system.


Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.


Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.


When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. As cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors.


Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors.


Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. In addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor.

Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. Benign tumors can sometimes be quite large, however. When removed, they usually don’t grow back, whereas malignant tumors sometimes do. Unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life threatening


What Is Breast Cancer?


Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.


Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas. To learn more about cancer and how all cancers start and spread, see Cancer Basics.

Where breast cancer starts?

Breast cancers can start from different parts of the breast. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple (ductal cancers). Some start in the glands that make breast milk (lobular cancers). There are also other types of breast cancer that are less common.


A small number of cancers start in other tissues in the breast. These cancers are called sarcomas and lymphomas and are not really thought of as breast cancers.


Although many types of breast cancer can cause a lump in the breast, not all do.  Many breast cancers are found on screening mammograms which can detect cancers at an earlier stage, often before they can be felt, and before symptoms develop. There are other symptoms of breast cancer you should watch for and report to a health care provider.


It’s also important to understand that most breast lumps are benign and not cancer (malignant). Non-cancerous breast tumors are abnormal growths, but they do not spread outside of the breast and they are not life threatening. But some benign breast lumps can increase a woman's risk of getting breast cancer. Any breast lump or change needs to be checked by a healthcare professional to determine if it is benign or malignant (cancer) and if it might affect your future cancer risk.



What is Prostate Cancer?


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men (after skin cancer), but it can often be treated successfully. If you have prostate cancer or are close to someone who does, knowing what to expect can help you cope. Here you can find out all about prostate cancer, including risk factors, symptoms, how it is found, and how it is treated.


Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer cells, and can spread to other areas of the body.


Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably. The prostate is a gland found only in males. It makes some of the fluid that is part of semen.


The prostate is below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The size of the prostate changes with age. In younger men, it is about the size of a walnut, but it can be much larger in older men.


Just behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles that make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate.


Some prostate cancers can grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some younger men) who died of other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them during their lives. In many cases neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it.




What is Lung cancer?


Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale.


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, among both men and women. Lung cancer claims more lives each year than do colon, prostate, ovarian and breast cancers combined.


People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer, though lung cancer can also occur in people who have never smoked. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes you've smoked. If you quit smoking, even after smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung cancer.


The most common type is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC makes up about 80 to 85 percent of all cases. Thirty percent of these start in the cells that form the lining of the body’s cavities and surfaces. This type usually forms in the outer part of the lungs (adenocarcinomas). Another 30 percent begins in cells that line the passages of the respiratory tract (squamous cell carcinoma).


A rare subset of adenocarcinoma begins in the tiny air sacs in the lungs (alveoli). It’s called adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). This type isn’t aggressive and may not invade surrounding tissue or need immediate treatment. Faster-growing types of NSCLC include large-cell carcinoma and large-cell neuroendocrine tumors.


Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents about 15 to 20 percent of lung cancers. SCLC grows and spreads faster than NSCLC. This also makes it more likely to respond to chemotherapy, but it’s also less likely to be cured with treatment.




What is Oral Cancer?

Oral cancer begins in the mouth, also called the oral cavity. This region of the body includes the lips, the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (called the buccal mucosa), the teeth, the gums, most of the tongue, the bottom of the mouth, and the bony roof of the mouth, or hard palate.


In addition, oral cancer can also develop in the oropharynx, which is the part of the throat that is just behind the mouth. When cancer occurs here, it is called oropharyngeal cancer or throat cancer, and can include the back of the tongue, the back of the roof of the mouth, the tonsils, and the walls of the upper throat.


The oral cavity and oropharynx are key to the healthy functioning of the body. They help us breathe, eat and speak. Salivary glands in the oral cavity start breaking down food as we chew, an essential part of digestion.


Cancer can develop in any part of the oral cavity. Because each part of the oral cavity is different, oral cancer encompasses a wide variety of cancer types that are treated in different ways.


What is a Brain Tumour?

A brain tumour is a lump in the brain which is caused when brain cells divide and grow in an uncontrolled way. What causes brain cells to start growing and dividing differently from healthy cells, forming a 'high grade' (cancerous) or 'low grade' (benign) tumour is not yet understood.

There are over 130 different primary brain and spinal tumours which are grouped and named according to the type of cell they grow from, their location in the brain and how quickly they are likely to grow and spread.


Colon cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer people experience. Although it’s the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, no one likes to talk about it. So what is colon cancer? Is it different from colorectal cancer? Understanding the disease is important both for those who have been diagnosed with it as well as those trying to prevent it.


Colon cancer is a malignancy that begins in the colon or large intestine. The large intestine is a long tube-like organ near the end of the digestive system. After food passes through the stomach and small intestine, the colon is responsible for removing fluid and some nutrients from the food you eat. The colon then pushes the remaining solid waste into the rectum where it can be expelled from the body.


Colorectal cancer is another commonly used term that includes not only cancers of the colon, but also cancers that form in the rectum. The rectum is the last part of the large intestine where stool, the body’s waste product, is expelled through the anus.


What is Colon Cancer?

Most colon cancers begin as benign polyps. These are either flat or knob-like growths on the lining of the large intestine. Occasionally, the growths produce symptoms such as bleeding, constipation or blood in the stool. But often, the cells produce no symptoms at all, so people may not know that they have them.


The best way to detect the presence of polyps is with a procedure called a colonoscopy, which is performed in a physician’s office.


While some polyps remain benign (non-cancerous), some may become malignant (cancerous) over time. For this reason, when a physician finds one or more polyps during a colonoscopy, they are generally removed during the procedure.


So how do you prevent polyps from forming in the first place? A family history of polyps or of colon cancer may increase your chances of getting them. People who are over the age of 50 also have a higher risk of forming polyps in the colon. But there are also lifestyle factors that play a role in the development of these growths. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of polyps. Smokers, people who consume a high fat diet, and those who consume alcohol are also at higher risk.



What is Ovarian Cancer?


Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.


Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and is frequently fatal. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.






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Chips Ters Profile
Chips Ters answered

Hello, malignant neoplasms of the skin Oncology is no longer a sentence. Those malignant diseases that even 10 years ago seemed incurable are successfully cured today. Breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma, thyroid cancer - there is a cure for all these diseases. There are also special preparations for the treatment of bowel cancer in the early stages, for example, fenbenlab.com is a very effective remedy in this component.

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